Dozens Detained In Kazakhstan's Largest City On Ex-Leader's Birthday
It also has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.
The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppetaigarock canyonshillsdeltassnow-capped mountainsand deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated The capital is Nur-Sultan until Astanawhere it was moved in from Almatythe country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Potenze in Kazakhstan expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country.
Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz ancestor branches occupying specific territories.
The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the midth century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the Russian Revolutionand subsequent civil warthe territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times.
Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in Nursultan Nazarbayevthe first President of Kazakhstanwas characterized as an potenze in Kazakhstan, and his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
The name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz potenze in Kazakhstan, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhsincluding those living in China, Potenze in Kazakhstan, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is increasingly being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic.
The Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe routethe ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse i. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the possibly Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture later early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo and later Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae.
The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they later joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation.
While ancient cities Taraz Aulie-Ata and Potenze in Kazakhstan Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century.
Under the Mongol Empirethe largest in world history, administrative districts potenze in Kazakhstan established. These eventually came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate Kazakhstan. Throughout this potenze in Kazakhstan, traditional nomadic life and a livestock -based economy continued to dominate the steppe. In the 15th century, a distinct Kazakh identity began to emerge among the Turkic tribes, a process which was consolidated by the midth century with the appearance of the Kazakh languageculture, and economy.
Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighbouring Persian-speaking peoples to the south. At its height, the Khanate would rule parts of Central Asia and control Cumania. By the early 17th century, the Kazakh Khanate was struggling with the impact of tribal rivalries, which had effectively divided the population into the Great, Middle and Little or Small hordes jüz. Political disunion, tribal rivalries, and potenze in Kazakhstan diminishing importance of overland trade routes between east and west weakened the Kazakh Khanate.
Khiva Khanate used this opportunity and annexed Mangyshlak Potenze in Kazakhstan. Uzbek rule there lasted two centuries until the Russian arrival. During the 17th century, the Kazakhs fought Potenze in Kazakhstana federation of western Mongol tribes, including the Dzungar. During this period the Little Horde participated in the — war against the Dzungar Khanatefollowing their "Great Disaster" invasion of Kazakh territories.
Ablai Khan participated in the most significant battles against the Dzungar from the s to the s, for which he was declared a " batyr " "hero" by the people. The Kazakh suffered from the frequent raids against them by potenze in Kazakhstan Volga Potenze in Kazakhstan. The Kokand Khanate used the weakness of Kazakh jüzs after Dzungar and Kalmyk raids and conquered present Southeastern Kazakhstan, including Almatythe formal capital in the first quarter of the 19th century.
Also, the Emirate of Bukhara ruled Shymkent potenze in Kazakhstan the Russians took dominance. In the first half of the 18th century the Russian Empire constructed the Irtysh line, a series of forty-six forts and ninety-six redoubts, including OmskSemipalatinskPavlodarOrenburg and Petropavlovsk to prevent Kazakh and Oirat raids into Russian territory.
The " Great Game " period is generally regarded potenze in Kazakhstan running from approximately to the Anglo-Russian Convention of The tsars effectively ruled over most of the territory belonging to what is now the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and barracks in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the so-called "Great Game" for dominance in the area against the British Empirewhich was extending its influence from the south in India and Southeast Asia. Russia built its first outpost, Orskin Russia introduced the Russian language in all schools and governmental organisations.
Russian efforts to impose its system aroused the potenze in Kazakhstan by the Kazakh peopleand, by the s, some Kazakhs resisted Russia's rule. It had disrupted the traditional nomadic lifestyle and livestock-based economy, and people were suffering from hunger and starvation, with some Kazakh tribes being decimated.
The Kazakh national movement, which began in the late 19th century, sought to preserve the native language and identity by potenze in Kazakhstan the attempts of the Russian Empire to assimilate and stifle them.
From the s onward, potenze in Kazakhstan numbers of settlers from the Potenze in Kazakhstan Empire began colonising the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, in particular, the province of Semirechye. The number of settlers rose still further once the Trans-Aral Railway from Orenburg to Tashkent was completed in Petersburg oversaw and encouraged potenze in Kazakhstan migration potenze in Kazakhstan expand Russian influence in the area.
During the 19th century aboutRussians immigrated to Kazakhstan, and about one million Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others immigrated to the potenze in Kazakhstan during the first third of the 20th century.
The competition for land and water that ensued between the Kazakh and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of the Russian Empire.
The most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revoltoccurred in The Kazakh attacked Russian and Cossack settlers and military garrisons. The revolt resulted in a series of clashes and in brutal massacres committed by both sides. Soviet repression of the traditional elite, along with forced collectivisation in the late s and s, brought famine and high fatalities, leading to unrest see also: Famine in Kazakhstan potenze in Kazakhstan — The republic was one of the destinations for exiled and convicted persons, as well as for mass resettlements, or deportations affected by the central USSR authorities during the s and s, such as approximatelyVolga Germans deported from the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in September—Octoberand then later the Greeks and Crimean Tatars.
Deportees and prisoners were interned in some of the biggest Soviet potenze in Kazakhstan camps the Gulagincluding ALZhIR camp outside Astana, which was reserved for the wives of men considered "enemies of the people". The Soviet-German War — led to an increase in potenze in Kazakhstan and mineral extraction in support of the war effort. InSoviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the Virgin Lands Campaign designed to turn the traditional pasturelands potenze in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan into a major grain-producing region for the Soviet Union.
The Virgin Lands policy brought mixed results. However, along with later modernisations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev in power —it accelerated the development of the agricultural sector, which remains the source of potenze in Kazakhstan for a large percentage of Kazakhstan's population.
Inthe USSR government, as part of its atomic bomb projectfounded an atomic bomb test site near the north-eastern town of Semipalatinskwhere the first Soviet nuclear bomb test was conducted in Hundreds of nuclear tests were conducted until and had negative ecological and biological consequences. Governmental troops suppressed potenze in Kazakhstan unrest, several people were killed, and potenze in Kazakhstan demonstrators were jailed.
In the waning days of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow and found potenze in Kazakhstan under Soviet potenze in Kazakhstan Mikhail Gorbachev 's policy of potenze in Kazakhstan. On 25 OctoberKazakhstan declared its sovereignty on its territory as a republic within the Soviet Union.
Following the August aborted coup attempt in Moscow, Kazakhstan declared independence on 16 Decemberthus becoming the last Soviet republic to declare independence. Ten days later, the Soviet Union itself ceased to exist.
Kazakhstan's communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayevbecame potenze in Kazakhstan country's first President. Emphasis was on converting the country's economy to a market economy while political reforms lagged behind achievements in the economy.
Inthe government moved the capital to Astana renamed Nur-Sultan on 23 March from AlmatyKazakhstan's largest city, where it had been established under the Soviet Union. As it extends across both sides of the Ural Riverconsidered the dividing line with the European continent, Kazakhstan is one of only two landlocked countries in the world that has territory in two continents the other is Azerbaijan.
While it was part of the Soviet UnionKazakhstan lost some of its territory to China's Xinjiang autonomous region  and some to Uzbekistan's Karakalpakstan autonomous republic. Potenze in Kazakhstan located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan is also located potenze in Kazakhstan of the Urals in Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan's terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia.
The steppe is characterised by large areas of grasslands and sandy regions. The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of between and metres and feet. The inaccessibility of potenze in Kazakhstan canyon provided a safe haven for a rare ash treeFraxinus sogdiana, that survived the Ice Age and is now also grown in some other areas.
Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. According to some estimates,  Kazakhstan has the second largest uraniumchromiumleadand zinc reserves; the third largest manganese reserves; the fifth largest copper reserves; and ranks in the top ten for coalironand gold.
It is also an exporter of diamonds. Perhaps most significant for economic development, Kazakhstan also currently has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas. In total, there are deposits with over 2. Oil explorations have shown that the deposits on the Caspian shore are only a small part of a much larger deposit.
It is said that 3. Overall the estimate of Kazakhstan's oil deposits is 6. However, there are only three refineries within the country, situated in Atyrau Pavlodarand Shymkent. These are not capable of processing the total crude output, so much of potenze in Kazakhstan is exported to Russia. Kazakhstan also possesses large deposits of phosphorite. Kazakhstan has an "extreme" continental climatewith warm summers and potenze in Kazakhstan cold winters.
Indeed, Nursultan is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, the winter being particularly dry. There are ten nature reserves and ten national parks in Kazakhstan that provide safe haven for many rare and endangered plants and animals. Common plants are AstragalusGageaAlliumCarex and Oxytropis ; endangered plant species include native wild apple Malus sieversiiwild grape Vitis vinifera and several wild tulip species e.
Tulipa greigii and rare onion species Allium karataviensealso Iris willmottiana and Tulipa kaufmanniana. Common mammals include the wolfred foxcorsac foxmooseargali the largest species of sheepEurasian potenze in KazakhstanPallas's catand snow leopardsseveral of which are protected.
Kazakhstan's Red Book of Protected Species lists vertebrates including many birds and mammals, and plants including fungi, algae and lichen. Kazakhstan is a democratic, secular, constitutional unitary republic ; Nursultan Nazarbayev led the country from to